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The Netherlands: Market Profile

Picture: Netherlands factsheet
Picture: Netherlands factsheet

1. Overview

Steady improvement in the Netherlands’ labour market and a rebound in asset prices have greatly encouraged domestic consumption, while soft energy prices, lower financing costs and higher corporate savings have underpinned investment in machinery and construction. Business sentiment will remain largely positive, given the competitive euro and the modest increase in the European Union (EU) demand. Nonetheless, with the fading out of the knock-on effects from previous stimulus programmes, the Dutch economy will likely see a slower pace of growth in 2018.

Source: World Bank, Fitch Solutions

2. Major Economic/Political Events and Upcoming Elections

October 2017
Prime Minister Mark Rutte formed a coalition after 225 days of talks following elections in March 2017.

Source: BBC country profile - Timeline, Fitch Solutions

3. Major Economic Indicators

Graph: The Netherlands real GDP and inflation
Graph: The Netherlands real GDP and inflation
Graph: The Netherlands GDP by sector (2017)
Graph: The Netherlands GDP by sector (2017)
Graph: The Netherlands unemployment rate
Graph: The Netherlands unemployment rate
Graph: The Netherlands current account balance
Graph: The Netherlands current account balance

e = estimate, f = forecast
Source: International Monetary Fund
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

4. External Trade

4.1 Merchandise Trade

Graph: The Netherlands merchandise trade
Graph: The Netherlands merchandise trade

Source: WTO
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

Graph: The Netherlands major export commodities (2017)
Graph: The Netherlands major export commodities (2017)
Graph: The Netherlands major export markets (2017)
Graph: The Netherlands major export markets (2017)
Graph: The Netherlands major import commodities (2017)
Graph: The Netherlands major import commodities (2017)
Graph: The Netherlands major import markets (2017)
Graph: The Netherlands major import markets (2017)

Source: Trade Map, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: August 29, 2018

4.2 Trade in Services

Graph: The Netherlands trade in services
Graph: The Netherlands trade in services

e = estimate
Source: WTO
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

5. Trade Policies

  • The Netherlands is a member of the EU, which has a common set of tariffs and customs levied on various imports and exports. As such, the trade policy is largely identical to that of the wider regional bloc. The EU updated its trade policy (and, by extension, its import tariffs, customs, duties and procedures) in 2017.
  • The EU is party to some 50 FTAs and, consequently, access to other markets of the countries concerned is currently mediated through those agreements. The EU’s scheme on generalised system of preferences (GSP) entered into effect on January 1, 2014. Under the scheme, tariff preferences have been removed for imports into the EU from countries where per-capita income has exceeded USD4,000 for four years in a row. Regarding Hong Kong, the territory has been fully excluded from the EU’s GSP scheme since May 1, 1998.
  • A number of Chinese mainland-origin products are subject to EU’s anti-dumping duties, including bicycles, bicycle parts, ceramic tiles, ceramic tableware and kitchenware, fasteners, ironing boards and solar glass. As of end-December 2017, the EU did not apply any AD measures on imports originated from Hong Kong.
  • To combat the spread of the Asian long-horned beetle, in July 1999 the EU introduced emergency controls on wooden packaging material originating in the Chinese mainland. Wood covered by the measures must be stripped of its bark and free of insect bore holes greater than 3mm across, or have been kiln-dried to below 20% moisture content.
  • For health reasons, the EU has adopted a Directive on the control of the use of nickel in objects intended to be in contact with the skin, such as watches and jewellery. The EU also adopted a Directive to ban the use of some phthalates in certain PVC toys and childcare articles on a permanent basis, which came into effect from January 16, 2007. In addition, the EU has adopted a Directive to prohibit the trading of clothing, footwear and other textile and leather articles which contain azo-dyes, from which aromatic amines may be derived.
  • The EU has adopted a number of Directives for environmental protection, which may have an impact on the sales of a wide range of consumer goods and consumer electronics. Notable examples include the Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) implemented in August 2005, and the Directive on Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) implemented in July 2006. On December 3, 2008, the European Commission (EC) presented two proposals: one for a recast RoHS Directive and the other for a recast WEEE Directive. The recast RoHS Directive was published on July 1, 2011 and entered into force on January 2, 2013. The Directive continues to prohibit EEE that contains the same six dangerous substances as the old RoHS Directive. From July 22, 2019, the new Directive will widen the current scope of the previous RoHS Directive, by including any EEE that will have fallen out of the old RoHS Directive’s scope, with only limited exceptions.
  • Another important law for foreign companies concerns the WEEE Directive. With the formal approval on June 7, 2012, the recast WEEE Directive entered into force on August 13, 2012. In brief, the recast WEEE Directive subjects Member States to higher collection/recycling targets (a 45% collection rate as of 2016 and 65% from 2019) and a wider scope of measure covering essentially all electric and electronic equipment, while establishing producer responsibility as a means of encouraging greener product designs. On the heels of the recast RoHS and WEEE Directives, the EU’s new framework Directive for setting eco-design requirements for energy-related product (ErP) is also now in place. The ErP Directive is no longer limited to only EEE (as it was under its predecessor, the energy-using product, or EuP Directive), but potentially covers any product that is related to the use of energy, including shower heads and other bathroom fittings, as well as insulation and construction materials.
  • REACH, an EU Regulation which stands for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, entered into force in June 2007. It requires EU manufacturers and importers of chemical substances (whether on their own, in preparation or in certain articles) to gather comprehensive information on the properties of their substances produced or imported in volumes of one tonne or more per year, and to register such substances prior to manufacturing in or import into the EU.
  • Nine types of goods imported into the EU are subject to licensing. These goods are (broadly): textiles; various agricultural products; iron and steel products; ozone-depleting substances; rough diamonds; waste shipment; harvested timber; endangered species; and drug precursors. No quotas are imposed on textiles and clothing exports, as well as non-textile products exports from Hong Kong and the Chinese mainland at present.
Source: WTO - Trade Policy Review, Fitch Solutions

6. Trade Agreement

6.1 Multinational Trade Agreements

Active

  1. EU: The Netherlands is a member of the EU that comprises 28 member states, and it follows EU's common external trade policy and measures. All EU member states adopt common external trade policy and measures. 19 EU members, including Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain, have adopted the euro as their legal tender.

  2. European Economic Area EU-European Free Trade Association (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland): The European Economic Area (EEA) unites the EU Member States and the three EFTA States (Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway) into an Internal Market governed by the same basic rules. These rules aim to enable goods, services, capital, and persons to move freely about the EEA in an open and competitive environment, a concept referred to as the four freedoms. While this agreement enhances trade flows between these countries, only Switzerland is a major trading partner to the EU.

  3. EU-Turkey Customs Union: the EU and Turkey are linked by a Customs Union agreement, which came into force on December 31, 1995. Turkey has been a candidate country to join the EU since 1999, and is a member of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership. The customs union with the EU provides tariff-free access to the European market for Turkey, benefitting both exporters and importers. Turkey is the EU's fourth largest export market and fifth largest provider of imports. The EU is by far Turkey's number one import and export partner. Turkey's exports to the EU are mostly machinery and transport equipment, followed by manufactured goods. At present the Customs Union agreement covers all industrial goods, but does not address agriculture (except processed agricultural products), services or public procurement. Bilateral trade concessions apply to agricultural as well as coal and steel products. In December 2016, the European Commission proposed the modernisation of the Customs Union and to further extend the bilateral trade relations to areas such as services, public procurement and sustainable development.

  4. EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA): CETA is expected to strengthen trade ties between the two regions, having come into effect in 2016. Some 98% of trade between Canada and the EU is duty-free under CETA. The agreement is expected to boost trade between partners by more than 20%. CETA also opens up government procurement. Canadian companies will be able to bid on opportunities at all levels of the EU government procurement market and vice-versa. CETA means that Canadian provinces, territories and municipalities are opening their procurement to foreign entities for the first time, albeit with some limitations regarding energy utilities and public transport.

Ratification Pending

  1. EU-Japan Trade Agreement - In July 2018, the EU and Japan signed a trade deal that promises to eliminate 99% of tariffs that cost businesses in the EU and Japan nearly EUR1 billion annually. According to the EC, the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) will create a trade zone covering 600 million people and nearly a third of global GDP. The result of four years of negotiation, the EPA was finalised in late 2017 and is expected to come into force by the end of the current mandate of the European Commission in 2019. The total trade volume of goods and services between the EU and Japan is EUR86 billion. The key parts of the agreement will cut duties on a wide range of agricultural products and it seeks to open up services markets, in particular financial services, e-commerce, telecommunications and transport. As of August 2018, the agreement is awaiting ratification by the European Parliament and the Japanese Diet, following which it could enter into force in 2019. At the same time, negotiations with Japan continue on investment protection standards and investment protection dispute resolution. Japan is the EU’s second-biggest trading partner in Asia after China. EU exports to Japan are dominated by motor vehicles, machinery, pharmaceuticals, optical and medical instruments, and electrical machinery. The agreement awaits ratification from all parties concerned.

  2. EU-SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Angola, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Seychelles, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) - An agreement between EU and SADC delegations was reached in 2016 and is awaiting ratification, with 13 of the 35 needed states having ratified the agreement as of April 2018.

  3. EU-Central America Association Agreement (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Belize, and Dominican Republic) - An agreement between the parties was reached in 2012 and is awaiting ratification (29 of the 34 parties have ratified the agreement as of April 2018).

Under Negotiation

  1. EU-Australia - The EU, Australia's second largest trade partner, has launched negotiations for a comprehensive trade agreement with Australia. Bilateral trade in goods between the two partners has risen steadily in recent years, reaching almost EUR48 billion in 2017, while bilateral trade in services added an additional EUR27 billion. The negotiations aim at removing trade barriers, streamlining standards and putting European companies exporting to or doing business in Australia on an equal footing with those from countries that have signed up to the Trans-Pacific Partnership or other trade agreements with Australia. The Council of the EU authorised opening negotiations for a trade agreement between the EU and Australia on May 22, 2018.

  2. EU-US (Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) - This agreement was expected to increase trade and services, but it is unlikely to pass under a Trump administration in the US.
Source:  WTO Regional Trade Agreements Database, Fitch Solutions

7. Investment Policy

7.1 Foreign Direct Investment

Graph: The Netherlands FDI stock
Graph: The Netherlands FDI stock
Graph: The Netherlands FDI flow
Graph: The Netherlands FDI flow

Source: UNCTAD
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

7.2 Foreign Direct Investment Policy

  1. The Netherlands is a member of the WTO and does not maintain any performance requirements or other measures that are inconsistent with obligations under Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs). In addition, general requirements to qualify for investment subsidy schemes apply equally to domestic and foreign investors. There are no requirements for employment of local capital or managerial personnel.

  2. With a competitive corporate income tax rate in Europe as well as a number of attractive incentive programmes, including specific Research and Developement (R&D) tax incentives to stimulate innovation, the Netherlands is keen to provide a stellar business climate to attract investment to key sectors such as agriculture, IT, chemicals, life sciences, creative, energy and aerospace industries.

  3. In the wake of the financial crisis, the Dutch government implemented significant reforms in key policy areas, including the labour market, the housing sector, the energy market, the pension system and healthcare. Dutch reform policies were crafted following close consultations with key stakeholders, including business associations, labour unions and civil society groups.

  4. The Netherlands maintains strong protection on all types of property, including private and intellectual property, and the right of citizens to own and use property. Expropriation of corporate assets or the nationalisation of industry requires a special act of parliament, as demonstrated in the nationalisation of ABN AMRO during the 2008 financial crisis. In the event of expropriation, the Dutch government follows customary international law, providing prompt, adequate, and effective compensation and ample process for legal recourse.

  5. Dutch tax authorities provide a high degree of customer service to foreign investors. Transparent, precise tax guidance lets investors know what to expect regarding long-term tax obligations. Advance Tax Rulings (ATR) and Advance Pricing Agreements (APA) are guarantees given by local tax inspectors regarding long-term tax commitments for a particular acquisition or greenfield investment.

  6. Maintaining an investment-friendly reputation is a high priority for the Dutch government, which provides public information and institutional assistance to prospective investors through the Netherlands Foreign Investment Agency (NFIA).

  7. The Netherlands has no formal foreign investment screening mechanisms and no foreign ownership quotas, with the exception of certain limitations in sectors that are deemed of vital national interest (transportation, energy, defence and security, finance, postal services, public broadcasting and the media). There is no requirement for Dutch nationals to have an equity stake in a Dutch registered company. With few exceptions, the Netherlands does not discriminate between national and foreign individuals in the establishment and operation of private companies. The government has divested its complete ownership of many public utilities, but in a number of strategic sectors, private investment, including foreign investment, may be subject to limitations or conditions. These include transportation, energy, defence and security, finance, postal services, public broadcasting and the media.

  8. The Netherlands has bilateral investment treaties (BITs) or treaties with investment chapters, containing strong investor protections, with more than 145 countries or regions.

Source: WTO - Trade Policy Review, The International Trade Administration (ITA), US Department of Commerce

7.3 Free Trade Zones and Investment Incentives

Free Trade Zone/Incentive ProgrammeMain Incentives Available
Foreign Trade Zones/Trade facilitationThe Netherlands has no free trade zones (FTZs) or free ports where commodities can be processed or reprocessed tax-free. However, FTZs exist for bonded storage, cargo consolidation, and reconfiguration of non-EU goods. This reflects the key role that transport, transit, logistics and distribution play in the Dutch economy. Dutch customs authorities oversee a large number of customs warehouses, free warehouses, and free zones along many of the Netherlands trade routes and entry points.

Schiphol Airport handles over 1.7 million tonnes of goods for distribution. Specific premises in the Schiphol area are designated customs-free zones. The Port of Rotterdam is Europe’s largest seaport by volume, handling over 37% of all cargo shipping on Europe's Le Havre-Hamburg coastline and processing nearly 461 million tonnes of goods in 2016. Many agents operate customs warehouses under varying customs regimes on the premises of the Port of Rotterdam.
Other investment incentivesGeneral requirements to qualify for investment subsidy schemes apply equally to domestic and foreign investors. Industry-specific, targeted investment incentives have long been a tool of Dutch economic policy to facilitate economic restructuring and to promote economic priorities. Such subsidies and incentives are spelled out in detailed regulations. Subsidies are in the form of tax credits that are disbursed through corporate tax rebates or direct cash payments if there is no tax liability.
R&D
The Dutch government pursues a programme designed to stimulate research and development investment in nine targeted sectors. The programme's goals are to improve the Dutch knowledge-intensive industries, to reach a top-five ranking among global knowledge-based economies by 2020, to increase the share of R&D efforts to 2.5% of GDP by 2020, and to establish sector-specific innovation consortia in which both public and private sectors participate. In a joint effort with academia and the private sector, the government has instituted a preferential policy that releases over USD1 billion of additional funding for R&D and product innovation in the top sectors.

8. Taxation – 2018

  • Value added tax: 21%
  • Corporate income tax: 25%

Source: PwC, Fitch Solutions

8.1 Important Updates to Taxation Information

  • The standard corporate income tax rate (CIT) currently stands at 25%. There are two taxable income brackets. A lower rate of 20% applies to the first income bracket, which consists of taxable income up to EUR200,000. The standard rate applies to the excess of the taxable income. A proposal to increase the first bracket to EUR250,000 in 2018, to EUR300,000 in 2020, and to EUR350,000 in 2021, has been withdrawn. The first bracket will continue to apply to taxable income up to EUR200,000. However, the new coalition has expressed its intention to reduce both the lower and standard CIT rate starting from 2019. The rate will be reduced in steps from 25% to 24% in 2019, to 22.5% in 2020, and to 21% in 2021. The lower rate will decrease by the same steps, from 20% to 19% in 2019, to 17.5% in 2020, and to 16% in 2021. There is no legislative proposal yet.
  • A special regime applies to profits, including royalties, derived from a self-developed intangible asset (developed after December 31, 2006). In this innovation box, the taxpayer may opt, under certain conditions, for the application of a lower effective rate on taxable profits derived from these intangible assets. Following the 2018 Dutch Tax Package, the effective tax rate of the innovation box is increased to 7% as of January 1, 2018 (previously 5%). There are no stamp duties in the Netherlands.
  • The Netherlands pursues an active tax treaty policy in order to maintain and extend its wide tax treaty network. Most Dutch bilateral tax treaties are based on the OECD Model Tax Convention. The Netherlands has concluded bilateral tax treaties for the avoidance of double taxation on income and capital (DTCs) with over 90 countries worldwide.

8.2 Business Taxes

Type of TaxTax Rate and Base
Corporate Income Tax Rate25%, a lower rate of 20% applies to the first income bracket, which consists of taxable income up to EUR200,000. The standard rate applies to the excess of the taxable income.
Capital Gains Tax Rate25%
Branch Tax Rate
25%
Withholding Tax- Dividends 15%
- Interest 0%
- Royalties from patents, know-how, etc. 0%
- Branch remittance tax 0%
Value-added Tax is imposed on goods delivered and services rendered.The general rate is 21%. Other rates are 0% (applicable to intra-EU supplies, exports, imports stored in bonded warehouses, services rendered in connection with the above, and certain other services) and 6% (for prime necessities).

Source: PwC Tax Summaries 2018
Date last reviewed: August 29, 2018

9. Foreign Worker Requirements

9.1 Working Permit

Non-EU member citizens require a work permit in order to work within the country; EU member citizens do not require a work permit, but their employer must inform the job office about their being hired. Citizens of the European Economic Area (with EU member states, Iceland, Norway and Lichtenstein) and Switzerland do not require a visa to enter, reside and work in the country. No work permit is needed by foreigners from outside the EU if they have a permanent residence or family reunion permit, have been granted asylum, study in the country or have blue or green cards.

9.2 Entry Requirements

Nationals of many foreign countries may not enter the Netherlands unless they have valid passports and visas. Visas may be obtained from the Dutch embassy or consulate abroad. Individuals coming to the Netherlands for a short term may stay for a maximum period of 90 days in any 180-day period if they have valid passports or other travel documents, as well as visas if required, and if they can prove that they have sufficient financial means to stay in, and to leave, the Netherlands.

9.3 Obtaining Foreign Worker Permits

Employers must first apply for a permit to hire foreign workers. A permit is granted once no suitable candidate can be found in the country or in other EU member states. The vacant position must be reported to the local district Labour Office and cannot be changed at a later stage to fit the profile of a potential employee. The candidate must then apply for a work permit. The government issues the permit for maximum of two years, which can be repeatedly prolonged, but always for maximum of two years and may be renewed as many times as needed. The permit process takes an average of one month.

9.4 Green Card

The Green Card system only applies to citizens from the following nations: Australia, Montenegro, Japan, Canada, South Korea, New Zealand, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, US, Serbia and Ukraine. The Green Card simplifies entry to the job market for foreigners who have qualifications for which the country has a job opening in a register of jobs suitable for Green Cards. The permit is for long-term residence for employment purposes.

9.5 Blue Card

This is intended for a stay associated with the performance of highly qualified employment. A foreigner holding a Blue Card may reside in the country and work in the job for which the Blue Card was issued, or change that job under the conditions defined. High qualification means a duly completed university education or higher professional education which has lasted for at least three years. The Blue Card is issued with a term of validity three months longer than the term for which the employment contract has been concluded; however, for a maximum period of two years. The Blue Card can be extended. One of the conditions for issuing it is a wage criterion: the employment contract must contain gross monthly or yearly wage at least at the rate of 1.5 multiple of the gross average annual wage.

9.5 Short-Term Work Visa

These can be granted by the embassy upon an application for maximum period of 90 days, which can be used within 180 days. The visa must be for the purpose of employment and the application must be submitted, beside general requirements, with work permit, employment contract, and proof of secured accommodation.

Source: Government of the Netherlands, Visa on Demand

10. Risks

10.1 Sovereign Credit Ratings


Rating (Outlook)Rating Date
Moody's
Aaa (Stable)31/03/2017
Standard & Poor'sAAA (Stable)
20/11/2015
Fitch Ratings
AAA (Stable)27/04/2018

Source: Moody's, Standard & Poor's, Fitch Ratings

10.2 Competitiveness and Efficiency Indicators


World Ranking
201620172018
Ease of Doing Business Index
27/189
28/190
32/190
Ease of Paying Taxes Index
26/189
28/190
20/190
Logistics Performance Index
4/160
N/A
6/160
Corruption Perception Index
8/176
8/180
N/A
IMD World Competitiveness8/63
5/63
4/63

Source: World Bank, IMD, Transparency International

10.3 Fitch Solutions Risk Indices


World ranking
201620172018
Economic Risk Index Rank23/202
Short-Term Economic Risk Score
73.8
76.9
75.2
Long-Term Economic Risk Score74.9
75.5
73.6
Political Risk Index Rank16/202
Short-Term Political Risk Score
79.0
84.8
86.5
Long-Term Political Risk Score85.5
87.5
87.5
Operational Risk Index Rank5/201
Operational Risk Index Score76.8
78.7
79.1

Source: Fitch Solutions

10.4 Fitch Solutions Risk Summary

ECONOMIC RISK
The country's large external surplus is a positive for financial stability, but negative for the economic growth outlook due to the heavy reliance on external demand. The rise in the size of the welfare state, and public sector in general, over recent years is also likely to act as a drag on growth.

OPERATIONAL RISK
The Netherlands enjoys one of the most market-friendly and open investment and trade policies among developed countries, and as a result is the second largest provider and recipient of foreign direct investment among OECD countries. Distinguishing strengths of the Dutch economy include the Netherlands’ stable political and macroeconomic climate, a highly developed financial sector, a strategic location, a well-educated and productive labour force, and high-quality physical and communications infrastructures. Investors in the Netherlands take advantage of its highly competitive logistics industry, anchored by the largest seaport and fourth largest airport in Europe. With the exception of the air transport sector, there are few restrictions to foreign ownership of Dutch companies. Restrictions in air transport mean that carriers need to be majority-owned by EU governments, with additional restrictions to voting rights in EU airlines.

Source: Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: August 28, 2018

10.5 Fitch Solutions Political & Economic Risk Indices

Graph: The Netherlands short term political risk index
Graph: The Netherlands short term political risk index
Graph: The Netherlands long term political risk index
Graph: The Netherlands long term political risk index
Graph: The Netherlands short term economic risk index
Graph: The Netherlands short term economic risk index
Graph: The Netherlands long term economic risk index
Graph: The Netherlands long term economic risk index

100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Economic and Political Risk Indices
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

10.6 Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index


Operational RiskLabour Market RiskTrade and Investment RiskLogistics RiskCrime and Security Risk
The Netherlands Score79.1
64.5
77.9
85.5
88.4
Developed States Average72.963.370.975.881.8
Developed States Position (out of 27)3
12
3
2
6
Developed States Average72.963.370.975.881.8
Developed States Position (out of 27)3
12
3
2
6
Global Average49.749.850.049.349.9
Global Position (out of 201)5
18
6
2
8

100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index

Graph: The Netherlands vs global and regional averages
Graph: The Netherlands vs global and regional averages
Country
Operational Risk IndexLabour Market Risk Index
Trade and Investment Risk IndexLogistics Risk IndexCrime and Secruity Risk Index
Switzerland79.976.577.673.991.8
Denmark79.6
75.4
75.8
83.3
84.0
Netherlands79.1
64.5
77.9
85.5
88.4
Sweden78.7
67.6
77.8
85.5
83.8
US78.2
79.0
75.2
88.0
70.5
New Zealand78.0
73.0
75.7
73.8
89.4
Canada77.5
75.2
71.8
80.7
82.1
UK77.3
72.1
78.1
77.9
81.3
Norway77.3
62.7
72.6
81.5
92.3
Finland75.2
53.0
73.5
83.2
91.2
Japan74.9
68.8
64.9
81.4
84.7
Luxembourg74.4
52.1
77.7
78.9
88.9
Ireland74.1
65.0
77.8
71.2
82.5
Austria74.1
58.6
71.6
77.9
88.3
Australia73.5
68.0
71.4
70.3
84.3
Germany73.0
63.4
69.5
77.4
81.7
Spain
72.1
59.0
67.4
80.9
81.3
Belgium
72.1
55.3
76.5
81.4
75.3
France
71.5
60.2
70.3
79.9
75.5
Portugal70.6
50.8
66.5
80.2
85.0
Iceland70.4
59.9
66.2
69.1
86.6
Liechtenstein69.5
54.7
79.5
61.1
82.6
Israel66.7
72.4
63.0
69.1
62.4
Malta65.2
52.4
69.6
58.5
80.1
Isle of Man65.0
62.0
61.8
53.9
82.3
Italy63.1
53.9
57.6
72.3
68.7
Greece58.253.147.868.863.2
Developed Markets Averages72.9
63.3
70.9
75.8
81.8
Global Markets Averages49.7
49.8
50.0
49.3
49.9

100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

11. Hong Kong Connection

11.1 Hong Kong’s Trade with The Netherlands

Graph: Major export commodities to The Netherlands (2017)
Graph: Major export commodities to The Netherlands (2017)
Graph: Major import commodities from The Netherlands (2017)
Graph: Major import commodities from The Netherlands (2017)
Graph: Merchandise exports to The Netherlands
Graph: Merchandise exports to The Netherlands
Graph: Merchandise imports from The Netherlands
Graph: Merchandise imports from The Netherlands

Exchange Rate HK$/US$, average
7.76 (2013)
7.75 (2014)
7.75 (2015)
7.76 (2016)
7.79 (2017)
Source: Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018


2017
Growth rate (%)
Number of Dutch residents visiting Hong Kong94,826
-1.0
Number of Dutch residents residing in Hong Kong1,035N/A

Visitor numbers Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board
Resident numbers Source: United Nations Population Division, Fitch Solutions


2017
Growth rate (%)
Number of European residents visiting Hong Kong1,929,824
-0.2

Visitor Numbers Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

11.2 Commercial Presence in Hong Kong


2017
Growth rate (%)
Number of Dutch companies in Hong Kong178
N/A
- Regional headquarters27
-6.9
- Regional offices56
-11.1
- Local offices95
-3.1

Source: Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department

11.3 Treaties and agreements between Hong Kong and The Netherlands

Alongside the Comprehensive Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation (CDTA) effective since October 24, 2011, Hong Kong also signed an Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (IPPA) with the Netherlands in September 1993.

11.4 Chamber of Commerce (or Related Organisations) in Hong Kong

Dutch Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong
Address: Suite 3002, 30/F, Central Plaza, 18 Harbour Road
, Wan Chai, Hong Kong
Email: info@dutchchamber.hk
Tel: (852) 2815 2801

Source: Dutch Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong

Dutch Consulate in Hong Kong
Address: Suite 3001, 30/F, Central Plaza, 18 Harbour Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong
Email: hon@minbuza.nl
Tel: (852) 2599 9200

Source: The Netherlands and you

11.5 Visa Requirements for Hong Kong Residents

A Schengen Visa is needed for travel to the Netherlands (as well as the other EU states) and is valid for up to 90 days. Application must be completed prior to travel.

Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

Content provided by Picture: Fitch Solutions – BMI Research
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