About HKTDC | Media Room | Contact HKTDC | Wish List Wish List () | My HKTDC |
繁體 简体
Save As PDF Print this page
Qzone

The Netherlands: Market Profile

Picture: The Netherlands factsheet
Picture: The Netherlands factsheet

1. Overview

The Netherlands is an advanced and open economy which sits at the heart of the EU, organised around the port of Rotterdam and international trade flows. It is a base for home-grown multinationals (Royal Dutch Shell, Unilever, Philips and Heineken) and is highly attractive to foreign investors (companies locating significant operations in Netherlands include Polaroid, Esso, Dow Chemical, Fuji, Nissan, Engelhardt, Amsco, Thorn EMI and Rank Xerox). Soft energy prices, lower financing costs and higher corporate savings have underpinned investment in machinery and construction. Business sentiment will remain largely positive in the medium term given the competitive euro and the modest increase in EU demand. Nonetheless, a waning labour force, increased reliance on external demand and fewer prospects for stimulus programmes will weigh on the economy’s growth going forward.

Sources: World Bank, Fitch Solutions

2. Major Economic/Political Events and Upcoming Elections

October 2017
Prime Minister Mark Rutte formed a coalition after 225 days of talks following elections in March 2017. The new four party coalition enjoyed a marginal majority, holding 76 of the 150 seats in the lower house of parliament.

March 2019
The country held provincial elections in which the Forum voor Democratie party won the most votes. The results also had a bearing on the Senate elections as the elected provincial representatives vote for the Senate members.

April 2019
Dutch infrastructure manager ProRail announced that it would invest EUR3.5 billion (USD3.9 billion) in railway stations over the next 10 years in the Netherlands. The investment would target the construction of around 20 new stations at an estimated cost of around EUR30 million (USD33.6 million) each.

May 2019
The country held elections to the Senate of the house. The 75 members were elected by the members of the States-Provincial, made up of elected representatives from the country’s 12 provinces. The ruling coalition lost its majority in the upper house of parliament and will need to rely on the agreement of opposition parties to pass key legislation.

August 2019
The law banning face-covering veils, including niqabs and burqas, in public areas such as schools, hospitals and public transport came into effect.

2021
The next general election to elect the country’s House of Representatives members will take place in March 2021; however, it could be held earlier if a snap election is called.

Sources: BBC country profile - Timeline, Fitch Solutions

3. Major Economic Indicators

Graph: The Netherlands real GDP and inflation
Graph: The Netherlands real GDP and inflation
Graph: The Netherlands GDP by sector (2018)
Graph: The Netherlands GDP by sector (2018)
Graph: The Netherlands unemployment rate
Graph: The Netherlands unemployment rate
Graph: The Netherlands current account balance
Graph: The Netherlands current account balance

e = estimate, f = forecast
Sources: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database, World Bank, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: July 30, 2019

4. External Trade

4.1 Merchandise Trade

Graph: The Netherlands merchandise trade
Graph: The Netherlands merchandise trade

Sources: WTO
Date last reviewed: July 30, 2019

Graph: The Netherlands major export commodities (2018)
Graph: The Netherlands major export commodities (2018)
Graph: The Netherlands major export markets (2018)
Graph: The Netherlands major export markets (2018)
Graph: The Netherlands major import commodities (2018)
Graph: The Netherlands major import commodities (2018)
Graph: The Netherlands major import markets (2018)
Graph: The Netherlands major import markets (2018)

Sources: Trade Map, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: July 31, 2019

4.2 Trade in Services

Graph: The Netherlands trade in services
Graph: The Netherlands trade in services

e = estimate
Source: WTO
Date last reviewed: July 30, 2019

5. Trade Policies

  • The Netherlands is a member of the EU, which has a common set of tariffs and customs levied on various imports and exports. As such, the trade policy is largely identical to that of the wider regional bloc. The EU updated its trade policy (and, by extension, its import tariffs, customs, duties and procedures) in 2017.

  • The EU is party to some 50 free trade agreements (FTAs) and, consequently, access to other markets of the countries concerned is currently mediated through those agreements. The EU’s generalised scheme of preferences (GSP) entered into effect on January 1, 2014. Under the scheme, tariff preferences have been removed for imports into the EU from countries where per-capita income has exceeded USD4,000 for four years in a row. Regarding Hong Kong, the territory has been fully excluded from the EU’s GSP scheme since May 1, 1998.

  • A number of mainland China-origin products are subject to EU’s anti-dumping duties, including bicycles, bicycle parts, ceramic tiles, ceramic tableware and kitchenware, fasteners, ironing boards and solar glass. As of end-December 2017, the EU did not apply any anit-dumping measures on imports originated from Hong Kong.

  • To combat the spread of the Asian long-horned beetle, in July 1999 the EU introduced emergency controls on wooden packaging material originating in mainland China. Wood covered by the measures must be stripped of its bark and free of insect bore holes greater than 3mm across, or have been kiln-dried to below 20% moisture content.

  • The EU has adopted a directive on the control of the use of nickel in objects intended to be in contact with the skin, such as watches and jewellery. The EU also adopted a directive to ban the use of some phthalates in certain PVC toys and childcare articles on a permanent basis, which came into effect from January 16, 2007. In addition, the EU has adopted a directive to prohibit the trading of clothing, footwear and other textile and leather articles that contain azo-dyes, from which aromatic amines may be derived.

  • The EU has adopted a number of directives for environmental protection which may have an impact on the sales of a wide range of consumer goods and consumer electronics. Notable examples include the Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) implemented in August 2005, and the Directive on Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) implemented in July 2006. The WEEE was recast in 2012 and member states must adhere to higher collection or recycling targets (a 45% collection rate as of 2016 and 65% from 2019). The directive was also wider in scope, covering all electric and electronic equipment, while establishing producer responsibility as a means of encouraging greener product designs. In addition, the EU's new framework directive for setting eco-design requirements for energy-related products (ErP) is now in place. The ErP directive now covers any product that is related to the use of energy, including shower heads and other bathroom fittings, as well as insulation and construction materials.

  • REACH is an EU regulation which entered into force in June 2007. It requires EU manufacturers and importers of chemical substances to gather comprehensive information on the properties of these substances produced or imported in volumes of one tonne or more per year, and to register such substances prior to manufacturing in or importing into the EU.

  • Nine types of goods imported into the EU are subject to licensing. These goods are (broadly): textiles; various agricultural products; iron and steel products; ozone-depleting substances; rough diamonds; waste shipment; harvested timber; endangered species; and drug precursors. No quotas are currently imposed on textile and clothing exports, as well as non-textile products exports from Hong Kong and the mainland China at present.

Sources: WTO - Trade Policy Review, Fitch Solutions

6. Trade Agreement

6.1 Multinational Trade Agreements

Active

  1. The EU Common Market: The transfer of capital, goods, services and labour between member nations enjoy free movement. The common market extends to the 28 member nations of the EU, namely: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

  2. EEA-EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland): While it enhances trade flows between these countries and the EU, only Switzerland is a fairly major trading partner.

  3. EU-Turkey: The customs union within the EU provides tariff-free access to the European market for Turkey, benefitting both exporters and importers.

  4. EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA): In July 2018, the EU and Japan signed a trade deal that promises to eliminate 99% of tariffs that cost businesses in the EU and Japan nearly EUR1 billion annually. According to the EC, the EU-Japan EPA will create a trade zone covering 600 million people and nearly a third of global GDP. The result of four years of negotiation, the EPA was finalised in late 2017 and came into force on February 1, 2019 after the EU Parliament ratified the agreement in December 2018. The total trade volume of goods and services between the EU and Japan is an estimated EUR86 billion. The key parts of the agreement will cut duties on a wide range of agricultural products and it seeks to open up services markets, particularly financial services, e-commerce, telecommunications and transport. Japan is the EU's second biggest trading partner in Asia after mainland China. EU exports to Japan are dominated by motor vehicles, machinery, pharmaceuticals, optical and medical instruments, and electrical machinery.

  5. EU-SADC EPA (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland): An agreement between EU and SADC delegations was reached in 2016 and is fully operational for SADC members following the ratification of the agreement by Mozambique. The remaining six members of the SADC no included in the deal (the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Zambia and Zimbabwe) are seeking EPAs with the EU as part of other trading blocs – such as with East or Central African communities.

Provisionally Active

The CETA: The CETA is an agreement between the EU and Canada. CETA was signed in October 2016 and ratified by the Canadian House of Commons and EU Parliament in February 2017. However, the agreement has not been ratified by every European state and has only provisionally entered into force. CETA is expected to strengthen trade ties between the two regions, having come into effect in 2016. Some 98% of trade between Canada and the EU will be duty free under CETA. The agreement is expected to boost trade between partners by more than 20%. CETA also opens up government procurement. Canadian companies will be able to bid on opportunities at all levels of the EU government procurement market and vice versa. CETA means that Canadian provinces, territories and municipalities are opening their procurement to foreign entities for the first time, albeit with some limitations regarding energy utilities and public transport.

Ratification Pending

  1. EU-Central America Association Agreement (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Belize and the Dominican Republic): An agreement between the parties was reached in 2012 and is awaiting ratification (29 of the 34 parties have ratified the agreement as of October 2018). The agreement has been provisionally applied since 2013.

  2. EU-Vietnam FTA: In July 2018, the EU and Vietnam agreed on final texts for the EU-Vietnam FTA and the EU-Vietnam Investment Protection Agreement. In 2019 the final text of the agreement was signed by both parties and is awaiting conclusion.

  3. EU-Singapore FTA and Investment Protection Agreement. The parties signed the agreement in October 2019 and the European Parliament consented to the agreement in February 2019.

Under Negotiation

  1. EU-Australia: The EU, Australia's second largest trade partner, has launched negotiations for a comprehensive trade agreement with Australia. Bilateral trade in goods between the two partners has risen steadily in recent years, reaching almost EUR48 billion in 2017, and bilateral trade in services added an additional EUR27 billion. The negotiations aim to remove trade barriers, streamline standards and put European companies exporting to or doing business in Australia on equal footing with those from countries that have signed up to the Trans-Pacific Partnership or other trade agreements with Australia. The Council of the EU authorised opening negotiations for a trade agreement between the EU and Australia on May 22, 2018.

  2. EU-United States Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: This agreement was expected to increase trade and services, but it is unlikely to pass under the administration led by United States President Donald Trump against a backdrop of rising global trade tensions.

  3. EU-New Zealand: In June 2018, the EU and New Zealand launched trade negotiations to remove trade barriers for goods and services as well as the development of trade rules to facilitate easier and sustainable trade between both parties.

Sources: WTO Regional Trade Agreements Database, Fitch Solutions

7. Investment Policy

7.1 Foreign Direct Investment

Graph: The Netherlands FDI stock
Graph: The Netherlands FDI stock
Graph: The Netherlands FDI flow
Graph: The Netherlands FDI flow

Source: UNCTAD
Date last reviewed: July 31, 2019

7.2 Foreign Direct Investment Policy

  1. The Netherlands boasts a large net international investment surplus, equivalent to 117% of GDP in 2017.

  2. The Netherlands is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and does not maintain any performance requirements or other measures that are inconsistent with obligations under Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs). In addition, general requirements to qualify for investment subsidy schemes apply equally to domestic and foreign investors. There are no requirements for employment of local capital or managerial personnel.

  3. With a competitive corporate income tax rate in Europe as well as a number of attractive incentive programmes, including specific research and development tax incentives to stimulate innovation, the Netherlands aims to provide a business climate to attract investment to several key sectors.

  4. The Netherlands protects all types of property, including private and intellectual property, and the right of citizens to own and use property. The expropriation of corporate assets or the nationalisation of industry requires a special act of parliament, as demonstrated by the nationalisation of ABN AMRO during the 2008 financial crisis. In the event of expropriation, the Dutch government follows customary international law, providing prompt, adequate, and effective compensation as well as ample process for legal recourse.

  5. The Dutch government provides public information and institutional assistance to prospective investors through the Netherlands Foreign Investment Agency (NFIA).

  6. On September 18, 2018 the Dutch Government presented the 2019 budget proposals, including the 2019 tax plan, which included some significant amendments to Dutch tax laws. In 2019 the corporate income tax rate will be 19% (down from 20%) on the first EUR200,000 of taxable profits and 25% for taxable profits exceeding EUR200,000. In the following years, the corporate income tax rate will be gradually be reduced as follows: 16.5% on profits up to EUR200,000 and 22.55% on profits above EUR200,000 for 2020 and 15% on profits up to EUR200,000 and 20.5% on profits above EUR200,000 for 2021. The reduced VAT rate was increased from 6% to 9% as of January 1, 2019. This VAT rate applies to food and beverages, pharmaceuticals and specific labour-intensive provision of services.

  7. The Netherlands has no formal foreign investment screening mechanisms and no foreign ownership quotas, with the exception of certain limitations in sectors that are deemed of national interest (transport, energy, defence and security, finance, postal services, public broadcasting and the media). There is no requirement for Dutch nationals to have an equity stake in a Dutch registered company. With few exceptions, the Netherlands does not discriminate between national and foreign individuals in the establishment and operation of private companies. The government has divested its complete ownership of many public utilities, but in a number of strategic sectors, private investment, including foreign investment, may be subject to limitations or conditions.

  8. The Netherlands has bilateral investment treaties or treaties with investment chapters containing strong investor protections with more than 145 countries or regions.

Sources: WTO - Trade Policy Review, ITA, US Department of Commerce, Fitch Solutions

7.3 Free Trade Zones and Investment Incentives

Free Trade Zone/Incentive ProgrammeMain Incentives Available
Foreign Trade Zones (FTZs)/Trade facilitationThe Netherlands has no FTZs or free ports where commodities can be processed or reprocessed tax-free. However, FTZs exist for bonded storage, cargo consolidation, and reconfiguration of non-EU goods. This reflects the key role that transport, transit, logistics and distribution play in the Dutch economy. Dutch customs authorities oversee a large number of customs warehouses, free warehouses, and free zones along many of the Netherlands trade routes and entry points.

Schiphol Airport handles more than 1.7 million tonnes of goods for distribution. Specific premises in the Schiphol area are designated customs-free zones. The port of Rotterdam is Europe’s largest seaport by volume, handling over 37% of all cargo shipping on Europe's Le Havre-Hamburg coastline and processing nearly 461 million tonnes of goods in 2016. Many agents operate customs warehouses under varying customs regimes on the premises of the Port of Rotterdam.
Other investment incentivesGeneral requirements to qualify for investment subsidy schemes apply equally to domestic and foreign investors. Industry-specific, targeted investment incentives have long been a tool of Dutch economic policy to facilitate economic restructuring and to promote economic priorities. Such subsidies and incentives are spelled out in detailed regulations. Subsidies are in the form of tax credits that are disbursed through corporate tax rebates or direct cash payments if there is no tax liability.
R&D
The Dutch government pursues a programme designed to stimulate R&D investment in nine targeted sectors. The programme's goals are:

- To improve the knowledge-intensive industries
- To reach a top-five ranking among global knowledge-based economies by 2020
- To increase the share of R&D efforts to 2.5% of GDP by 2020
- To establish sector-specific innovation consortia in which both public and private sectors participate

In a joint effort with academia and the private sector, the government has instituted a preferential policy that releases more than USD1 billion of additional funding for R&D and product innovation in the top sectors.

Sources: National sources, Fitch Solutions

8. Taxation – 2019

  • Value Added Tax: 21%
  • Corporate Income Tax: 19% or 25%

Sources: Government of the Netherlands, Fitch Solutions

8.1 Important Updates to Taxation Information

On December 18, 2018, the Dutch Senate adopted the tax plan for 2019, which came into effect on January 1, 2019. The following key changes of the Dutch corporate income tax regime have become effective: There will be no abolishment dividend withholding tax, a reduction of the Dutch corporate income tax rate, limitation on loss carry forward period, removal of the restriction for the offset of tax losses by Dutch Holding Companies, introduction earnings stripping rule (general limitation interest deduction), estriction tax depreciation of buildings in own use and abolishment interest deduction Tier 1 capital instruments (contingent convertibles). The reduced VAT rate is increased from 6% to 9% as per January 1, 2019. This VAT rate applies to food and beverages, pharmaceuticals and specific labor-intensive provision of services.

8.2 Business Taxes

Type of TaxTax Rate and Base
Corporate Income Tax19% on the first EUR200,000 of taxable profits and 25% for taxable profits exceeding EUR200,000
Capital Gains TaxCompanies can distribute some of their profits as dividend to their shareholders. Dividends are subject to tax. The general rate of dividend tax is 15%.
Withholding TaxDividends: Dividends from Dutch corporations are generally subject to a 15% withholding tax
Interest: 0%
Royalties: 0%
VAT21%

Sources: Government of the Netherlands, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: July 30, 2019

9. Foreign Worker Requirements

9.1 Working Permit

Non-EU member citizens require a work permit in order to work in the country. EU member citizens do not require a work permit, but their employer must inform the job office about their appointment. Citizens of the EEA (with EU member states, Iceland, Norway and Lichtenstein and Switzerland) do not require a visa to enter, reside or work in the country. No work permit is needed by foreigners from outside the EU if they have a permanent residence or family reunion permit, have been granted asylum, study in the country or have a Blue Card or Green Card.

9.2 Entry Requirements

Nationals of many foreign countries may not enter the Netherlands unless they have valid passports and visas. Visas may be obtained from the Dutch embassy or consulate abroad. Individuals coming to the Netherlands for a short period may stay for a maximum of 90 days in any 180-day period if:

  • They have valid passports or other travel documents;
  • They have the necessary visas;
  • They can prove that they have sufficient financial means to stay in and to leave the Netherlands.

9.3 Obtaining Foreign Worker Permits

Employers must first apply for a permit to hire foreign workers. A permit is granted once no suitable candidate can be found in the country or in other EU member states. The vacant position must be reported to the local district Labour Office and cannot be changed at a later stage to fit the profile of a potential employee. The candidate must then apply for a work permit. The government issues the permit for maximum of two years, which can be repeatedly prolonged, but always for maximum of two years, and may be renewed as many times as needed. The permit process takes an average of one month.

9.4 Green Card

The Green Card system only applies to citizens from the following nations: Australia, Montenegro, Japan, Canada, South Korea, New Zealand, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, the United States, Serbia and Ukraine. The Green Card simplifies entry to the job market for foreigners who have qualifications for which the country has a job opening in a register of jobs suitable for Green Cards. The permit is for long-term residence for employment purposes.

9.5 Blue Card

People applying for high qualification employment may apply for a Blue Card. A foreigner holding a Blue Card may reside in the country and work in the job for which the Blue Card was issued, or change that job under the conditions defined. High qualification means a duly completed university education or higher professional education which lasted at least three years. The Blue Card is issued for three months longer than the term for which the employment contract has been concluded. It only applies for a maximum period of two years, but can be extended.

9.5 Short-Term Work Visa

These can be granted by the embassy for a maximum period of 90 days, which can be used within 180 days. The visa must be for the purpose of employment.

Sources: Government of the Netherlands, Visa on Demand

10. Risks

10.1 Sovereign Credit Ratings


Rating (Outlook)Rating Date
Moody's
Aaa (Stable)22/02/2019
Standard & Poor'sAAA (Stable)
20/11/2015
Fitch Ratings
AAA (Stable)26/04/2019

Sources: Moody's, Standard & Poor's, Fitch Ratings

10.2 Competitiveness and Efficiency Indicators


World Ranking
201720182019
Ease of Doing Business Index
28/19032/19036/190
Ease of Paying Taxes Index
20/19020/19021/190
Logistics Performance Index
N/A6/160N/A
Corruption Perception Index
8/1808/180
N/A
IMD World Competitiveness5/634/63
6/63

Sources: World Bank, IMD, Transparency International

10.3 Fitch Solutions Risk Indices


World Ranking
201720182019
Economic Risk Index RankN/A24/20223/202
Short-Term Economic Risk Score
76.975.275.0
Long-Term Economic Risk Score75.573.675.1
Political Risk Index RankN/A16/20217/202
Short-Term Political Risk Score
84.886.586.5
Long-Term Political Risk Score87.587.586.5
Operational Risk Index RankN/A5/2014/201
Operational Risk Score78.779.878.4

Source: Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: July 30, 2019

10.4 Fitch Solutions Risk Summary

ECONOMIC RISK
The Netherlands' large external surplus is a positive for financial stability, but is a negative for its economic growth outlook owing to the heavy reliance on external demand. Furthermore, an already low unemployment rate, a declining labour force and no more room for monetary stimulus all suggest that the Netherlands' economy will slow sharply over the medium term. The rise in the size of the welfare state and the public sector in general is also likely to act as a drag on growth. The economy faces two major downside risks in the form of high household leverage and high exposure to global trade tensions. The rising popularity of populism in the Dutch parliament also poses downside risks for EU integration. Although Prime Minister Mark Rutte managed to form a coalition, it holds the smallest majority – holding 76 of the 150 seats in the lower house of parliament – which may make it a challenge to form policy. The incumbent coalition lost its majority in the Senate and will make it reliant on the agreement of opposition parties to pass legislation.

OPERATIONAL RISK
The Netherlands enjoys one of the most market-friendly and open investment and trade policies among developed countries. Distinguishing strengths of the Dutch economy include a highly developed financial sector, a strategic location in Europe, a well-educated and productive labour force, and high-quality physical and communication infrastructure. Investors in the Netherlands take advantage of its highly competitive logistics industry, anchored by the largest seaport and fourth largest airport in Europe. With the exception of the air transport sector, there are few restrictions to foreign ownership of Dutch companies. Restrictions in air transport mean that carriers need to be majority-owned by EU governments, with additional restrictions to voting rights in EU airlines.

Source: Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: July 31, 2019

10.5 Fitch Solutions Political and Economic Risk Indices

Graph: The Netherlands short term political risk index
Graph: The Netherlands short term political risk index
Graph: The Netherlands long term political risk index
Graph: The Netherlands long term political risk index
Graph: The Netherlands short term economic risk index
Graph: The Netherlands short term economic risk index
Graph: The Netherlands long term economic risk index
Graph: The Netherlands long term economic risk index

100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Economic and Political Risk Indices
Date last reviewed: July 30, 2019

10.6 Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index


Operational RiskLabour Market RiskTrade and Investment RiskLogistics RiskCrime and Security Risk
The Netherlands Score78.4
65.9
78.2
88.6
80.7
Developed States Average72.464.671.376.377.4
Developed States Position (out of 27)2
13
2
1
11
Global Average49.650.349.8
49.049.2
Global Position (out of 201)4
18
5
1
14

100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index

Graph: The Netherlands vs global and regional averages
Graph: The Netherlands vs global and regional averages
Country
Operational Risk Index
Labour Market Risk Index
Trade and Investment Risk IndexLogistics Risk IndexCrime and Security Risk Index
Denmark80.4
74.8
76.2
88.382.3
Netherlands78.465.9
78.2
88.680.7
Sweden78.067.7
78.187.578.6
Switzerland77.775.077.675.183.2
New Zealand77.473.775.772.188.3
United States77.281.3
75.382.969.3
Canada77.074.375.476.781.6
United Kingdom76.871.479.078.578.2
Norway76.264.072.280.887.9
Finland74.255.874.183.483.7
Ireland73.966.878.072.079.0
Austria73.760.871.980.581.5
Luxembourg72.854.277.680.079.3
Germany72.365.569.081.273.6
Australia72.067.872.168.379.9
Japan71.872.465.577.971.5
France71.860.171.183.272.8
Iceland71.460.667.269.688.1
Belgium71.358.272.883.271.1
Spain71.359.469.880.976.0
Liechtenstein70.759.878.161.583.2
Portugal69.451.766.580.978.4
Israel67.471.464.671.162.7
Isle of Man65.869.162.449.382.4
Malta64.654.969.060.873.7
Italy
63.754.559.776.264.3
Greece58.054.249.268.959.6
Developed Markets Averages72.464.671.376.377.4
Emerging Markets Averages46.948.645.447.4
46.1
Global Markets Averages49.650.349.849.049.2

100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index
Date last reviewed: July 30, 2019

11. Hong Kong Connection

11.1 Hong Kong’s Trade with The Netherlands

Graph: Major export commodities to The Netherlands (2018)
Graph: Major export commodities to The Netherlands (2018)
Graph: Major import commodities from The Netherlands (2018)
Graph: Major import commodities from The Netherlands (2018)

Note: Graph shows the main Hong Kong exports to/imports from The Netherlands (by consignment)
Date last reviewed: July 30, 2019

Graph: Merchandise exports to The Netherlands
Graph: Merchandise exports to The Netherlands
Graph: Merchandise imports from The Netherlands
Graph: Merchandise imports from The Netherlands

Note: Graph shows Hong Kong exports to/imports from The Netherlands (by consignment)
Exchange Rate HK$/US$, average
7.75 (2014)
7.75 (2015)
7.76 (2016)
7.79 (2017)
7.83 (2018)
Sources: Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: July 30, 2019


2018
Growth rate (%)
Number of Dutch residents visiting Hong Kong93,863
-1.0
 2017Growth rate (%)
Number of Dutch residing in Hong Kong1,0351.5

Sources: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs – Population Division, Fitch Solutions


2018
Growth rate (%)
Number of European residents visiting Hong Kong1,961,448
1.7

Sources: Hong Kong Tourism Board, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: July 31, 2019

11.2 Commercial Presence in Hong Kong


2018
Growth rate (%)
Number of Dutch companies in Hong Kong180
1.1
- Regional headquarters28
3.7
- Regional offices52
-7.1
- Local offices100
5.2

Sources: Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department, Fitch Solutions

11.3 Treaties and agreements between Hong Kong and The Netherlands

Alongside the Comprehensive Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation (CDTA) effective since October 24, 2011, Hong Kong also signed an Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (IPPA) with the Netherlands in September 1993.

Sources: UNCTAD, Inland Revenue Department, Fitch Solutions

11.4 Chamber of Commerce or Related Organisations

Dutch Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong
Address: Suite 3002, 30/F, Central Plaza, 18 Harbour Road
, Wan Chai, Hong Kong
Email: info@dutchchamber.hk
Tel: (852) 2815 2801

Source: Dutch Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong

Netherlands Hong Kong Business Association
Email: secretariat@nhkba.nl
Tel: (31) 20 7600 333
Website: www.nhkba.nl
Please click to view more information.

Source: Federation of Hong Kong Business Associations Worldwide

Netherlands Consulate General in Hong Kong and Macao
Address: Suite 3001, 30/F, Central Plaza, 18 Harbour Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong
Email: hon@minbuza.nl
Tel: (852) 2599 9200
Fax: (852) 2868 5388

Source: Visa on Demand

11.5 Visa Requirements for Hong Kong Residents

HKSAR passport holders do not need a visa to the Schengen area for a stay up to 90 days in any 180-day period.

Date last reviewed: September 23, 2019

Content provided by Picture: Fitch Solutions – BMI Research
Comments (0)
Shows local time in Hong Kong (GMT+8 hours)

HKTDC welcomes your views. Please stay on topic and be respectful of other readers.
Review our Comment Policy

*Add a comment (up to 5,000 characters)